Arabica coffee is a species of coffee originally indigenous to the forests of the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia. It is also known as the "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee", or "arabica coffee". Arabica coffee is believed to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated.

Arabica coffee green beansArabica coffee green beans

The species is widely naturalised in areas outside its native land, in many parts of Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, China, and assorted islands in the Caribbean and in the Pacific

Arabica coffee accounts for 70% of the world's coffee production.

Arabica coffee takes about seven years to mature fully, and does best with 1000–1500 mm (about 40–59 inches) of rain, evenly distributed throughout the year. It is usually cultivated between 1,300 and 1,500 m altitude, but plantations grow it as low as sea level and as high as 2,800 m.

The plant can tolerate low temperatures, but not frost, and does best with an average temperature between 15 and 24 °C (59 and 75 °F). Commercial cultivars mostly only grow to about 5 m, and are frequently trimmed as low as 2 m to facilitate harvesting. Unlike Robusta coffee, Arabica coffee prefers to be grown in light shade.

The flowers only last a few days, leaving behind only the thick, dark-green leaves. The berries then begin to appear. These are as dark green as the foliage, until they begin to ripen, at first to yellow and then light red and finally darkening to a glossy, deep red. At this point, they are called "cherry" and are ready for picking.

Arabica coffee cherriesArabica coffee cherries

The berries are oblong and about 1 cm long. Inferior coffee results from picking them too early or too late, so many are picked by hand to be able to better select them, as they do not all ripen at the same time. They are sometimes shaken off the tree onto mats, which means ripe and unripe berries are collected together.

The trees are difficult to cultivate and each tree can produce from 0.5 to 5.0 kg of dried beans, depending on the tree's individual character and the climate that season. The real prize of this cash crop is the beans inside. Each berry holds two locules containing the beans. The coffee beans are actually two seeds within the fruit; sometimes, a third seed or one seed, a peaberry, grows in the fruit at tips of the branches. These seeds are covered in two membranes; the outer one is called the "parchment coat" and the inner one is called the "silver skin".

Arabica coffee from Cau Dat

Cau Dat, around 20km from Da Lat city, Lam Dong province, is the most famous origin for growing coffee and tea in Vietnam. The colcanic soil, cooling mists, and especially the altitude 1600m ablove sea level make it the ideal land for high quality arabica coffee. According to Leslie Wolford, senior coffee specialist for Starbucks, Cau Dat arabica coffee has a bright refreshing acidity highlighting kola nut, toffee, and vanilla. It is excellent as espresso, brewed coffee, or even cold brew.

Cau Dat arabica coffee – Typical coffee Acidity – is a blend for Arabica lovers with smooth texture for a perfect espresso coffee, nice acidity, citrus flavor and sweet after taste.
Arabica coffee beans - Typical coffee AcidityArabica coffee beans - Typical coffee Acidity

Arabica coffee beans - Typical coffee AcidityArabica coffee beans - Typical coffee Acidity

Arabica coffee beans - Typical coffee AcidityArabica coffee beans - Typical coffee Acidity